Today is Wednesday, Nov. 13, the 317th day of 2013. There are 48 days left in the year.
On this date in:
1789: Benjamin Franklin writes in a letter to a friend, Jean-Baptiste Leroy: “In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.”
1849: Voters in California ratify the state’s original constitution.
1909: Two hundred fifty-nine men and boys are killed when fire erupts inside a coal mine in Cherry, Ill.
1927: The Holland Tunnel opens to the public, providing access between lower Manhattan and New Jersey beneath the Hudson River.
1937: The NBC Symphony Orchestra, formed exclusively for radio broadcasting, makes its debut.
1942: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a measure lowering the minimum draft age from 21 to 18.
1956: The U.S. Supreme Court strikes down laws calling for racial segregation on public city and state buses.
1969: Speaking in Des Moines, Iowa, Vice President Spiro T. Agnew accuses network television news departments of bias and distortion, and he urges viewers to lodge complaints.
1971: The U.S. space probe Mariner 9 goes into orbit around Mars.
1974: Karen Silkwood, a technician and union activist at the Kerr- McGee Cimarron plutonium plant near Crescent, Okla., dies in a car crash while on her way to meet a reporter.
1982: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, designed by Maya Lin, is dedicated on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
1985: Some 23,000 residents of Armero, Colombia, die when a volcanic mudslide buries the city.
2003: Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore, who had refused to remove his granite Ten Commandments monument from the state courthouse, is thrown off the bench by a judicial ethics panel for having “placed himself above the law.”
Eric Gagne of the Los Angeles Dodgers wins the National League Cy Young Award.
1988: Warren JFK High School takes first place in the 20th Annual Austintown Optimist Club’s Invitational Speech Tournament.
The Trumbull County Library Bookmobile marks its 50th anniversary. It was started in 1938 with $7,500 authorized by the county budget commission.
An analysis of election results show that Republican incumbent Gary Van Brocklin did so poorly in the prosecutor’s race that he failed to carry his home community of Boardman against challenger James Philomena.
1973: An armed man robs the Alice Street Market in Youngstown and cuts Khaled Ziadeh, father of the owner, with the sights of a 38-caliber revolver, when Ziadeh scuffles with him.
Frank Nemec, chairman and CEO of Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co., is chairman of the 1973 Youngstown area campaign for the United Negro College Fund, which has a goal of $50,000.
Dennis Watkins, a graduate of Austintown High School, Youngstown State University and the Backus School of Law at Case Western Reserve University, is accepted into practice before the Ohio bar and has been hired as an assistant prosecutor for Trumbull County.
1963: Mahoning Common Pleas Judge Sidney Rigelhaupt jails two Struthers men, Ben White and Michael Granchay, for refusing to testify before a Mahoning County grand jury investigating rackets.
The Mahoning County Welfare Department anticipates a $75,000 deficit by the end of the year.
Liberty Township Trustee Myron Berlin says Trumbull County commissioners arbitrarily bypassed the trustees and accepted Arms Drive into the township’s road system without giving trustees an opportunity to object.
1938: Ohio Highway Director John J. Jester resigns rather than follow the orders of Gov. Martin Davey to fire nine engineers who accused the governor of entering a patronage deal with Gov.-elect John Bricker. The nine engineers and an assistant director also resigned.
The “dry” trend in Mahoning County that saw several areas approve local options prohibiting the sale of liquor will mean at least 13 liquor and beer permit holders will have to surrender their licenses or transfer them to “wet” areas.
The Weirton Steel Co. makes a gift of a half-million dollar plant that has been idle for a year to the Clarksburg, W.Va., Chamber of Commerce.