Today is Friday, Nov. 1, the 305th day of 2013. There are 60 days left in the year.
On this date in:
1512: Michelangelo finishes painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
1765: The Stamp Act goes into effect, prompting stiff resistance from American colonists.
1861: During the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln names Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan General-in-Chief of the Union armies, succeeding Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott.
1870: The United States Weather Bureau makes its first meteorological observations.
1936: In a speech in Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini describes the alliance between his country and Nazi Germany as an “axis” running between Rome and Berlin.
1944: “Harvey,” a comedy by Mary Chase about a man and his friend, an invisible 6-foot-tall rabbit, opens on Broadway.
1949: An Eastern Airlines DC-4 collides in midair with a Lockheed P-38 fighter plane near Washington National Airport, killing all 55 people aboard the DC-4 and seriously injuring the pilot of the P-38.
1950: Two Puerto Rican nationalists try to force their way into Blair House in Washington, D.C., to assassinate President Harry S. Truman. The attempt fails, and one of the pair is killed, along with a White House police officer.
1952: The United States explodes the first hydrogen bomb, code-named “Ivy Mike,” at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands.
1968: The Motion Picture Association of America unveils its new voluntary film rating system: G for general, M for mature (later changed to GP, then PG), R for restricted and X (later changed to NC-17) for adults only.
1973: After the “Saturday Night Massacre,” Acting Attorney General Robert H. Bork appoints Leon Jaworski to be the new Watergate special prosecutor, succeeding Archibald Cox.
1979: Former first lady Mamie Eisenhower dies in Washington, D.C., at age 82.
1989: East Germany reopens its border with Czechoslovakia, prompting tens of thousands of refugees to flee to the West.
1988: On his first campaign trip to the Mahoning Valley since the May primary, Democratic presidential candidate Michael Dukakis says that the federal government should provide financial assistance to companies willing to locate or expand in hard-hit areas like the Mahoning Valley.
Only about 450 of 1,500 Howland Township property owners with access to new sewer lines have disconnected their septic systems, so the Trumbull County sanitary engineer will begin issuing written warnings.
Jim Tressel says five fumbles in the first quarter set up a 29-0 drubbing of the Youngstown State Penguins by Liberty University at Lynchburg, Va.
1973: McCullough Williams, president of the Youngstown Board of Education, says adults who are attempting to create racial overtones and political implications are behind the refusal of Chaney and Wilson football teams to play a scheduled game.
Joseph M. Socak, 28, and James A. Kitchen, 42, both of Youngstown, are sentenced to jail without bond after they refused to testify before a federal grand jury in Cleveland investigating organized crime in Youngstown.
Police say a World War II grenade was used to bomb the M.C. Club at 3429 South Ave., injuring a night watchman, William Richards, 35.
1963: A cursing mob of 50 to 100 men beat two Youngstown patrolmen responding to a disturbance call at 114 W. Chalmers Ave. In fair condition in South Side Hospital are Patrolmen Edward Mika, 37, and John Updegraff, 41.
Aeroquip Corp. of Mackson, Mich., buys the Republic Rubber Division of Lee Rubber & Tire Co. in Youngstown for $5.5 million.
Two youngsters dressed in Halloween costume are struck by cars in separate accidents in Youngstown. Maryland Ramos, 9, and Deborah DiBocco, 8, were not seriously injured.
1938: The Rev. George P. Novak gives the invocation and U.S. Rep. Michael J. Kirwan, D-Youngstown, turns the first shovel of dirt at the groundbreaking for the new Campbell Post Office.
Three passersby are peppered with birdshot by a McGuffey Road store keeper who was enraged by Halloween vandalism and mistook them for the pranksters.
Jack O’Neill, 7, a second-grader at St. Brendan School, suffers burns when the candle flame from a jack-o-lantern ignites a paper costume he was wearing at a party at the Haber residence, 391/2 N. Glenellen.