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Solar industry grapples with hazardous wastes

Published: Mon, February 11, 2013 @ 12:15 a.m.


California Green Design employees assemble solar electrical panels on the roof of a home in Glendale, Calif. Homeowners on the hunt for sparkling solar panels are lured by ads filled with images of pristine landscapes and bright sunshine, and words about the technology’s benefits for the environment. However, the industry is creating millions of solar panels each year and, in the process, millions of pounds of polluted sludge and contaminated water.

Associated Press


Homeowners on the hunt for sparkling solar panels are lured by ads filled with images of pristine landscapes and bright sunshine, and words about the technology’s benefits for the environment — and the wallet.

What customers may not know is that there’s a dirtier side.

While solar is a far less polluting energy source than coal or natural gas, many panel makers are nevertheless grappling with a hazardous waste problem. Fueled partly by billions in government incentives, the industry is creating millions of solar panels each year and, in the process, millions of pounds of polluted sludge and contaminated water.

To dispose of the material, the companies must transport it by truck or rail far from their own plants to waste facilities hundreds and, in some cases, thousands of miles away.

The fossil fuels used to transport that waste, experts say, is not considered in calculating solar’s carbon footprint, giving scientists and consumers who use the measurement to gauge a product’s impact on global warming the impression that solar is cleaner than it is.

After installing a solar panel, “it would take one to three months of generating electricity to pay off the energy invested in driving those hazardous waste emissions out of state,” said Dustin Mulvaney, a San Jose State University environmental studies professor who conducts carbon footprint analyses of solar, biofuel and natural-gas production.

The waste from manufacturing has raised concerns within the industry, which fears that the problem, if left unchecked, could undermine solar’s green image at a time when companies are facing stiff competition from each other and from low-cost panel manufacturers from China and elsewhere.

The increase in solar hazardous waste is directly related to the industry’s fast growth over the past five years — even with solar business moving to China rapidly, the U.S. was a net exporter of solar products by $2 billion in 2010, the last year of data available.

New companies often send hazardous waste out of their plants because they have not yet invested in on-site treatment equipment, which allows them to recycle some waste.

Nowhere is the waste issue more evident than in California, where landmark regulations approved in the 1970s require industrial plants such as solar-panel makers to report the amount of hazardous materials they produce, and where they send it. California leads the consumer solar market in the U.S. — which doubled overall in 2010 and 2011.

The Associated Press compiled a list of 41 solar-panel makers in the state, which included the top companies based on market data, and startups. In response to an AP records request, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control provided data that showed 17 of them reported waste. The remaining did not.

The same level of federal data does not exist.

The state records show the 17 companies, which had 44 manufacturing facilities in California, produced 46.5 million pounds of sludge and contaminated water from 2007 through the first half of 2011. Roughly 97 percent of it was taken to hazardous-waste facilities throughout the state, but more than 1.4 million pounds were transported to nine other states: Arkansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Rhode Island, Nevada, Washington, Utah, New Mexico and Arizona.

Many solar-energy experts said they haven’t calculated the industry’s total waste and were surprised at what the records showed.

Solyndra, the now-defunct solar company that received $535 million in guaranteed federal loans, reported producing about 12.5 million pounds of hazardous waste, much of it carcinogenic cadmium-contaminated water, which was sent to waste facilities from 2007 through mid-2011.

Before the company went bankrupt, leading to increased scrutiny of the solar industry and political fallout for President Barack Obama’s administration, Solyndra said it created 100 megawatts-worth of solar panels, enough to power 100,000 homes.

Records also show several Silicon Valley solar facilities created millions of pounds of toxic waste without selling a single solar panel, while they were developing their technology or fine-tuning their production.

Though much of the waste is considered toxic, there was no evidence it has harmed human health.

The vast majority of solar companies that generated hazardous waste in California have not been cited for waste-related pollution violations, although three had minor violations on file.

In many cases, a toxic sludge is created when metals and other toxins are removed from water used in the manufacturing process. If a company doesn’t have its own treatment equipment, then it will send contaminated water to be stored at an approved dump.


1cambridge(3973 comments)posted 3 years, 3 months ago

uticashill....If I have to choose which one I would have on my property, solar panels or a drilling rig and a new lawn mower I'll pick the solar panels along with other much cleaner and greener energy sources.

You keep living in the past and looking in your rear view mirror, I'll keep living fifteen years in the future and walking upright.

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2redeye1(5538 comments)posted 3 years, 3 months ago

Unticashale I'm in total agreement with you. Cambridge is your typical kool-aid drinker who can't see past his own nose. He will never admit that he might be wrong. You know how those liberals are.

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3DSquared(1757 comments)posted 3 years, 3 months ago

Oops! I think MAObama's slush(sludge) fund is showing.

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4RTS1416(117 comments)posted 3 years, 3 months ago

But, but, but it's green, isn't it? Cambridge, I think the big question here is are they exempt form clean air and clean water regulations? I think you better look into that.

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5cambridge(3973 comments)posted 3 years, 3 months ago

uticashill&rts....First of all there are no shipyards in Alameda. There was a shipyard that built ships for the Navy but it closed in the 50's. Now there is some ship repair for the Navy and boat repair for pleasure boaters. Since Alameda is an island we have many marina's and boats.

The energy that Alameda gets from land fill gas is clean and renewable. The most remarkable aspect of landfill gas is the fact that while landfill gas is providing energy for the power grid, it is also preventing the emission of naturally occurring methane gas into the atmosphere. No other energy source results in such a win-win situation. In addition, solid waste is a plentiful resource, and will always be generated. According to the EPA, landfills are the largest human-related sources of methane in the country. The amount of methane produced depends on the rate of decomposition, the quantity and moisture content of the waste, as well as the waste management practices at the landfill. If these gases are not captured, they are emitted into the atmosphere where they contribute to the rising carbon emissions. Because methane sourced from landfills is produced naturally throughout the day, landfill gas projects typically operate as base load power plants and achieve capacity factors over 90%. This high capacity factor and competitive fuel price relative to natural gas, landfill gas projects have the double benefit of being economical and effective in reducing concentration of greenhouse gases.


As far as pollution from solar panels I don't know of any and I've never heard of the solar industry being exempt from clean air and clean water regulations. I'll tell what I will do, I will challenge the two of you and the rest of your shill usernames. You post a link of an article, documentary or video showing where a person, a community or the environment was damaged by the solar panel industry and then I'll post one that shows damage by your industry. Then it's your turn again, we can keep doing it till one of us runs out of links to post. Come on it will be fun, I'll go first.


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