Today is Saturday, Dec. 8, the 343rd day of 2012. There are 23 days left in the year. The Jewish Festival of Lights, Hanukkah, begins at sunset.
On this date in:
1776: During the Revolutionary War, Gen. George Washington’s retreating army crosses the Delaware River from New Jersey into Pennsylvania.
1854: Pope Pius IX proclaims the Catholic dogma of the Immaculate Conception, which holds that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was free of original sin from the moment of her own conception.
1886: The American Federation of Labor is founded in Columbus, Ohio.
1941: The United States enters World War II as Congress declares war against Japan, a day after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
1961: The Beach Boys’ first single, “Surfin’,” is released.
1962: The first session of the Second Vatican Council is formally adjourned.
1972: A United Airlines Boeing 737 crashes while attempting to land at Chicago-Midway Airport, killing 43 of the 61 people on board, as well as two people on the ground; among the passengers who died were Dorothy Hunt, wife of Watergate conspirator E. Howard Hunt, U.S. Rep. George W. Collins, D-Ill., and CBS News correspondent Michele Clark.
1980: Rock star John Lennon is shot to death outside his New York City apartment building by an apparently deranged fan.
1987: President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev sign a treaty at the White House calling for destruction of intermediate-range nuclear missiles.
1992: Americans get to see live television coverage of U.S. troops landing on the beaches of Somalia as Operation Restore Hope begins (because of the time difference, it is early Dec. 9 in Somalia).
1987: PPG Industries begins construction of a second building in a multimillion-dollar paint-mixing plant and products research facility near the General Motors complex in Lordstown Village.
A U.S. Justice Department mediator called to Youngstown by the Human Relations Commission confirms what many Youngstown residents have suspected: there is a growing rift between the black community and city police.
Former Astronaut James Irwin, who walked on the moon during the Apollo 15 mission in 1971, will be the main speaker at the Crossing Paths Ministry Christmas banquet at Tiffany Manor in Brookfield.
1972: The Most Rev. James W. Malone, bishop of Youngstown, will return home Dec. 15 for a 30-day leave from the Roswelll Park Institute in Buffalo, where he is undergoing radiation treatments for a cancerous abdominal ailment.
Some 100 employees of U.S. Steel Corp.’s limestone quarry will be forced to retire or accept jobs in other departments with the end of operations at the Hillsville, Pa., quarry.
Muddy fields keep Mahoning County farmers from harvesting their corn crop and losses are estimated at as high as $2 million on the reduced yield from 20,000.
1962: Two veteran employees of “Automatic” Sprinkler Corp. in Youngstown are killed when a 7-foot ditch in which they were working outside Sherwin-Williams paint factory in Hubbard collapses. Dead are Charles Markie, 60, and Wright E. Bradley, 55.
The Rev. Paul Erb, field representative of the Mennonite Board of Missions and Charities, speaks at two services in North Lima Mennonite Church about world activity of the Mennonites.
Joseph “Little Joey” Naples is found guilty by a jury of five women and seven men of violating a new state law by promoting a numbers game.
1937: U.S. Rep. Michael J. Kirwan of Youngstown says Ohio Gov. Martin Davey used poor judgment in his “off the record” speech attacking the Roosevelt administration’s business policies.
Lammot du Pont, president of E.I. du Pont Co., proposes a plan to create 3 million jobs in the United States over 10 years through the investment of $25 billion by private industry in exchange for changes in federal tax and labor laws.
Youngstown Mayor Lionel Evans says the city cannot afford the $48,000 it would cost to reduce the workweek of firemen from 84 hours a week to 72 hours and give them a day off. Other city employees have work weeks of 44 to 48 hours.
Fred Tod is in the North Side unit of Youngstown Hospital recovering from injuries received when he was thrown from a mule wagon during a bird-hunting trip near Albany, Ga.