Today is Wednesday, Oct. 18, the 291st day of 2006. There are 74 days left in the year. On this date in 1962, Dr. James D. Watson of the U.S., and Dr. Francis Crick and Dr. Maurice Wilkins of Britain, are named winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology for their work in determining the double-helix molecular structure of DNA.
In 1648, Boston shoemakers are authorized to form a guild to protect their interests; it's the first American labor organization on record. In 1867, the United States takes formal possession of Alaska from Russia. In 1892, the first long-distance telephone line between New York and Chicago is officially opened (it could only handle one call at a time). In 1898, the American flag is raised in Puerto Rico shortly before Spain formally relinquishes control of the island to the U.S. In 1931, inventor Thomas Alva Edison dies in West Orange, N.J., at age 84. In 1940, Britain reopens the Burma Road linking Myanmar with China, three months after closing it. In 1944, Soviet troops invade Czechoslovakia during World War II. In 1968, the U.S. Olympic Committee suspends Tommie Smith and John Carlos for giving a "black power" salute as a protest during a victory ceremony in Mexico City. In 1969, the federal government bans artificial sweeteners known as cyclamates because of evidence they caused cancer in laboratory rats. In 1982, former first lady Bess Truman dies at her home in Independence, Mo., at age 97.
October 18, 1981: Former Youngstown Mayor J. Phillip Richley, president and founder of the Mahoning Valley Economic Development Corp., says the Mahoning Valley's long-range outlook is good and predicts that job-creating economic expansion will begin.
Ohio's township trustees and clerks will get pay raises under a bill passed by the Ohio General Assembly. The maximum salary for trustees in the state's largest townships will go from 4,400 to 7,200; the clerk's salary will go from 6,250 to 12,000.
The Hoyt Institute of Fine Arts is preparing for its first national art show, which will feature 1,356 paintings, drawings, photographs and sculptures.
October 18, 1966: Washington School parents in Youngstown, perturbed by a shift in bus pickups for parochial school children, ask the board of education to reduce required distances for bus transportation to one mile from the present 1.5 miles.
The Ohio Department of Liquor Control rejects a request by Colonial Lanes for on-premises sale of beer, strengthening the Canfield Village's unofficial "dry" policy.
King's Department Stores announces that it will put stores in two Youngstown area plazas, the Wedgewood Plaza in Austintown and Mathews Plaza in Boardman.
October 18, 1956: The Rev. John Harris Burt, rector of St. John's Episcopal Church in Youngstown for seven years, resigns to accept a call to All Saints Episcopal Church in Pasadena, Calif.
Richard Worley, 20, of rural Mercer, Pa., is named a regional Star Farmer of America at the Future Farmers of America convention in Kansas City. The award carried a check of 500.
Secretary of Commerce Sinclair Weeks stresses the importance of electing a Republican Congress to support President Eisenhower in a talk to 60 Youngstown District business leaders at the Youngstown Country Club.
October 18, 1931: Details incident to reorganization will delay opening of the First National Bank for 10 days to two weeks. Meanwhile, 300 South Side businessmen pledge their support to the plan of directors and stockholders to reopen the City Trust & amp; Savings Bank.
A string of pearls valued at 2,000 was stolen from the room of Ada Turowski of Youngstown, a student at Ohio State University.
Samuel Mather, pioneer in the vast empire of Great Lakes shipping, mining and steel manufacturing, dies suddenly at his Cleveland home. He was 80.