Today is Thursday, July 28, the 209th day of 2005. There are 156 days left in the year. On this date in 1945, a U.S. Army bomber crashes into the 79th floor of New York's Empire State Building, killing 14 people.
In 1540, King Henry VIII's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, is executed, the same day Henry marries his fifth wife, Catherine Howard. In 1655, French dramatist and novelist Cyrano de Bergerac, the inspiration for a play by Edmond Rostand, dies in Paris. In 1821, Peru declares its independence from Spain. In 1868, the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing due process of law, is declared in effect. In 1896, the city of Miami, Fla., is incorporated. In 1945, the U.S. Senate ratifies the United Nations Charter by a vote of 89-2. In 1977, Roy Wilkins turns over leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to Benjamin L. Hooks. In 2002, nine coal miners trapped in the flooded Quecreek Mine in Somerset, Pa., are rescued after 77 hours underground.
July 28, 1980: An earthquake that measured 5.1 on the Richter scale and was centered near the Ohio-Kentucky border rolled through Ohio, causing only slight damage. The quake, which struck in the middle of a Sunday afternoon, was barely noticed in the Youngstown area.
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat orders a state funeral for the deposed Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who died a t a military hospital near Cairo after a long fight with cancer.
July 28, 1965: A massive scale model of northeast Ohio showing the proposed route of the Lake Erie-Ohio River Waterway goes on display in Cleveland to show how the project would after that area of the state. The model was created by Interconnecting Waterway Inc. of Columbus.
President Johnson announces he is increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.
General Motors Corp., the world's largest manufacturing company, earned more money in the first half of 1965, $1.2 billion, than any other company.
July 28, 1955: The first major break in a police investigation of runaway rail cars that killed a North Side couple may come with the questioning by police of a 14-year-old boy. Police believe the cars were purposely set loose by vandals.
Four children overcome by ammonia fumes from a refrigerator are rescued form an apartment house fire in Campbell. Patrolmen Albert Masi and Michael Jacobs spotted the fire while on routine patrol, alerted more than a dozen residents and carried the four children to safety themselves.
A 30-inch industrial water line of the Ohio Water Service Co. blows up a large section of the pavement in State Street in Struthers and floods the lower section of the city.
July 28, 1930: Youngstown vice Squad Chief J.C. Huffman scoffs at reports from a gambler arrested in Farrell that the headquarters of an extensive baseball gambling pool in located in downtown Youngstown. Huffman acknowledges that small pools may spring up from time to time.
The hot spell continues in the Youngstown area with temperatures reaching 97 degrees at 1 p.m. The judge and lawyers in the Sheet & amp; Tube merger trial agree to adjourn because of the heat at 10:30 a.m.
Five persons are injured and 15 passengers escape with a severe shaking up when a large Nevin bus turns over on its side in a ditch between New Springfield and East Palestine. The bus was en route from Pittsburgh to Cleveland and several of the passengers were bound for Youngstown.