Today is Thursday, July 21, the 202nd day of 2005. There are 163 days left in the year. On this date in 1925, the so-called Monkey Trial ends in Dayton, Tenn., with John T. Scopes convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin's Theory of Evolution. (The conviction is later overturned.)
In 1831, Belgium becomes independent as Leopold I is proclaimed King of the Belgians. In 1861, the first Battle of Bull Run is fought at Manassas, Va., resulting in a Confederate victory. In 1899, author Ernest Hemingway is born in Oak Park, Ill.; poet Hart Crane is born in Garrettsville, Ohio. In 1944, American forces land on Guam during World War II. In 1949, the U.S. Senate ratifies the North Atlantic Treaty. In 1954, the Geneva Accords divide Vietnam into northern and southern entities. In 1955, during the Geneva summit, President Eisenhower presents his "open skies" proposal under which the U.S. and the Soviet Union would trade information on each other's military facilities. In 1961, Capt. Virgil "Gus" Grissom becomes the second American to rocket into a suborbital pattern around the Earth, flying aboard the Liberty Bell 7. In 1969, Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin blast off from the moon aboard the lunar module. In 1980, draft registration begins in the United States for 19- and 20-year-old men.
July 21, 1980: More than 1,000 people take part in downtown Youngstown activities to mark the annual African Cultural Weekend.
Selective service registration resumes throughout the nation. In Youngstown, only eight men appeared at the Post Office in the first hour and a half, but by 11 a.m., the figure rose to 66.
Two young Boardman men are seriously injured when they fall 35 feet from a ledge near the Old Mill Museum in Mill Creek Park. Stanley Reese and Randall Nashett, both 19, are in South Side Hospital.
July 21, 1965: Youngstown Mayor Anthony B. Flask calls a workshop of law officers, judges, public officials, clergy, newsmen and others to discuss ways of reducing the rising toll on city highways. The city has registered 24 auto deaths in 1965, 10 more than the total in 1964.
O.J. Gabriel, retired superintendent of Struthers schools, is named manager of Youngstown's new Youth Opportunity Center that will open at 26 W. Indianola Ave.
A 14-foot statue of the Blessed Virgin of Lebanon is lowered into place atop a tower at the $150,000 Shrine of Our Lady of Lebanon on Lipkey Road. When completed, the shrine is expected to attract thousands of visitors each year.
July 21, 1955: The Youngstown Tent & amp; Awning Co. of 120 E. Woodland Ave., which has been closed by a strike for two months, reopens with about 20 employees back at work.
WFMJ-TV gives Youngstown district viewers an hour-long preview of the 12th Annual Mahoning Saddle and Bridle Association's Horse Show. The live telecast was staged in the parking lot adjacent to the station's downtown studio.
Lister Hill, D-Ala., chairman of the Senate Labor Committee, predicts that the Senate and House will iron out their differences and raise the nation's minimum wage from 75 cents to $1 per hour.
July 21, 1930: Testifying in Youngstown, Eugene Grace says his bonus in 1929 as president of the Bethlehem Steel Corp. was $1.6 million. Grace has taken 3.3 percent of net earnings for five years; his bonus in 1929, had the merger with Youngstown Sheet & amp; Tube Co. been in effect, would have totaled $2.5 million.
A 14-year-old girl, Anna Babinchok, is near death in South Side Hospital, after being shot by George Bialik, 37, who killed himself. Anna had rejected his attentions.
Sweltering, record-breaking heat continues to envelop Youngstown with the official temperature reaching 100 degrees in the city. Unofficial marks of 106 degrees were seen in several localities.