Today is Thursday, Jan. 27, the 27th day of 2005. There are 338 days left in the year. On this date in 1945, Soviet troops liberate the Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz and Birkenau in Poland.
In 1756, composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is born in Salzburg, Austria. In 1880, Thomas Edison receives a patent for his electric incandescent lamp. In 1943, some 50 bombers strike Wilhelmshaven in the first all-American air raid against Germany in World War II. In 1944, the Soviet Union announces the end of the deadly German siege of Leningrad, which had lasted for more than two years. In 1951, an era of atomic testing in the Nevada desert begins as an Air Force plane drops a one-kiloton bomb on Frenchman Flats. In 1967, astronauts Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, Edward H. White and Roger B. Chaffee die in a flash fire during a test aboard their Apollo 1 spacecraft at Cape Kennedy, Fla. In 1967, more than 60 nations sign a treaty banning the orbiting of nuclear weapons. In 1973, the Vietnam peace accords are signed in Paris.
January 27, 1980: The Ohio House Local Government Committee dusts off a controversial dormant bill that would alter county government in Ohio to replace three commissioners with a county executive and an expanded commission and would give the new boards legislative powers similar to those of city councils.
The 3,500 steelworkers who will be out of work when U.S. Steel closes shop in Youngstown are unlikely to receive the more generous unemployment benefits that would be available if the Labor Department found that the workers were eligible for Trade Readjustment Assistance. "We have nothing to offer," one Labor official says.
The test results of 500 seniors in Youngstown public schools who took the ACT's pre-college test show an average of 15.6 out of 36 possible points, well below the state average of 19.1 and the national average of 18.6.
January 27, 1965: Myron E. Roberts, president of Mahoning National Bank, reports that 1964 was an excellent year. Total assets exceeded $100 million at year's end for the first time.
U.S. Steel Corp. reports that earnings in 1964 were the highest since 1960 at $236 million, or $3.90 a share, on sales of $4.1 billion.
Harry A. Stuhldreher, 63, of Pittsburgh, one of the "Four Horsemen" of Notre Dame football in the 1920s, dies at West Penn Hospital after undergoing surgery.
January 27, 1955: The Air Force announces that it will assign a 25-plane jet fighter-bomber squadron to the Youngstown Municipal Airport as soon as official clearance is received from President Eisenhower's Air Coordinating Committee.
A full wing of 75 U.S. Sabrejet fighters arrives in Taipeh and more naval units are reported steaming northward to reinforce the powerful 7th Fleet for the defense of the Chinese Nationalist stronghold on Formosa against threats from Red China.
Youngstown's fight against air pollution has begun paying dividends in improved health, more pleasant living condition and lower cleaning bills, says Walter I. Rauh, Youngstown's smoke regulation engineer. He says recent tests show the dust content of the air has been reduced by 97 percent since similar tests were taken in 1950.
January 27, 1930: Rabbi I.E. Philo clarifies a recent statement on public education, saying that when he characterized American public schools as "75 percent inefficient," he was discussing public education in general, not making a specific indictment of Youngstown public schools.
Two Youngstown fathers, one 21 years old and one 28, are sentenced to a minimum of a year in the Mansfield Reformatory by Judge C.S. Turnbaugh in criminal court for failing to provide for their minor children.
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, 89, who has been presiding over the Supreme Court during the absence of Chief Justice Taft, is detained at home on the orders of his physician. In his absence, Justice van Devanter, next in seniority, presides over the day's court session and then calls a recess until Feb. 24.