Examples of disparities among Mahoning Valley communities:
The area's population declined 9 percent from 1970 to 1990, but urban land area grew 30 percent.
Seventy-five percent of Youngstown elementary pupils were eligible for free lunches, which is 21/2 times the regional average. Warren had 56 percent eligible, Campbell 47 percent and Struthers 48 percent, all above the regional average.
Four of six Austintown schools, three of five Niles schools and one of two LaBrae schools showed greater than average increases in the 1990s in pupils eligible for free lunches.
Liberty and South Range school districts showed poverty rates increasing faster than average.
Elementary schools in Youngstown had 14 percent of the region's pupils in 1999 but 30 percent of its poor children.
Youngstown has 30 percent of the region's households but has the ability to raise only 19 percent of the region's taxes. Beloit, East Liverpool and Salineville also had tax bases that are well below the region's average.
In 1998, 59 percent of the area's non-Asian minorities in elementary schools were concentrated in the Youngstown system.
Source: Metropolitan Area Research Corp.